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1. Woven fabrics produced from looms;
In these fabrics,in a majority of cases,the warp and weft threads lie at right angles to one another.           
2.Nonwoven fabrics produced on heat bonding or needlepunched machines.
Both types are made from randomly laid fibres which are either heated between rollers until they partially melt together,or are agitated by barbed needles to produce an artifical felt.
3.DSF fabrics produced on a warp knitting machines where the rows of needles effectively knot the fibre intersections to produce a directionally structure fibre(DSF).Fibres are arranged in an orderly fashion,but can be orientated in a variety of directions.  
4.Open mesh textile grids and nets made by weaving or warp knitting,as well as geogrids.
5.Impermeable geomembranes,particularly those made from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 
6.Geocomposite materials such as fin drains,DSF/nonwoven composites and laminated multi-layer composites where nonwovens,wovens and membranes are bonded together


Terram is a tough,synthetic,nonwoven fabric produced from polyethylene and polypropylene filaments - durable,permeable and ideal for a wide variety of construction applications.

Where can Terram be used ?  For access areas,drives and paths,terraces and other paved areas,farm roads and gateways,for temporary working areas and material storage sites - anywhere that has to support frequent comings and goings.Terram is used to separate,prevent stone from being pushed into soft ground or losing bedding sand into a stone foundation.By maintaining this separation there is no loss of stability and subsequent rutting or uneveness.

For ground drains and soakaways Terram is used as a filter:stopping soli or sand clogging up drainage stone.Simply line the trench or soakaway with Terram and fill with coarse stone - no need for graded material!

In both applications Terram is easy to install and yields savings over conventional methods in terms of material and maintenance.


FOR SEPARATION                                                         
Selecting the aggregateIt can compise crushed stone chippings,pebbles,gravel etc - containing a mix of
angular large to small materials which can be well compacted to provide a stable
surface.The maximum stone size should not exceed a third of the compacted depth
thus avoiding point loading onto the Terram.Don't forget the single-size rounded stone will not compact,but move around under traffic and be displaced.
Depth of aggregate and sandYou will need about 15 to 23cm (6-9") of compacted aggregate to support a
surface for light vehicles:while for pedestrian use,a compacted aggregate depth
of 10 to 15cm (4-6") should be enough.
Depth of sand bedding layer under paved areas should be about 4-5cm (1.5-2")
How to prepare the
ground.
First,clear the area of any large stones or other objects which would damage the
Terram during installation.Level the area by removing any undulations and fill any ruts.
Grass can be left undisturbed but treat any persistent weeds such as thistles and dockswith a strong,lasting weed killer,such as sodium chlorate.
Laying the TerramKeep your Terram material wrapped against exposure to sunlight until you use it:then lay the Terram directly on top of the levelled ground,weighting the edges if it's windy.
Cutting and joiningYou can easily cut Terram to shape with either a sharp knife or a pair of scissors.And you can span any required area just by overlapping Terram by 30cm (12")
Putting down the
aggregate
Terram is very strong,and will not be damaged by laying and compacting the aggregate provided you go about it sensibly.Dump the aggregate and push it forward onto the Terram to the required depth allowing for compaction.Try to avoid running machinery over the Terram until it is coveredwith the required depth of material.Do not traffic the area until the stone has been adequately compacted.
Compacting the aggregateCompaction should be thorough enough to provide a solid,stable surface.Equipment selection will be dependent on the area being treated and the depth of the aggregate being laid.


FOR DRAINAGE                                                    
After you have dug your drainage trench:spread Terram over it,and weight it down         
temporarily if necessary.
Then gradually tip the first layer of fill onto the Terram so that the fabric will line the trench.Do this carefully to avoid tearing the Terram.
Now fill the trench almost to the top with aggregate,and wrap the Terram over it - without leaving a double thickness of Terram on the top.
If this is a ground-water drain,you can add topsoil to the level of the surrounds and seed with grass.If the drain has to cope with surface water as well as ground water cover the Terram with at least 150mm of pea gravel - which should stay exposed,and will need occassional maintenance.
Terram will acheive maximum permeability only after several days in its wet environment.Some types of soil are particularly difficult to filter - so do obtain specialist technical advise if you have doubts about your site.

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The manner in which you install Terram,the aggregate used and the ground conditions involved can all affect the performance of Terram and the success of your project.In particular you should ask your aggregate supplier to advise on the aggregate you should use for your particular project.

If you are not experienced in carrying out the projects of the type listed above,you should seek advise from someone who is appropriately qualified.The aforementioned points is only to be used as a general guide and therefore cannot cover all the aspects involved.


GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Term     Description                                                                                                                

Anchor Trench An excavated ditch in which the edges of a geotextile or geomembrane materail are buried in order to hold it into place.
·
Berm A soil ridge often forming the outer edge of a lagoon,lake or pond.
·
Breaking Strength The ultimate tensile strength of a material per unit width. Usually given in k/N metre width
·
Butyl Rubber A synthetic rubber based on isobutylene and a minor amount of isoprene.It is vulcanisable and is highly impermeable to gases and water vapour,with good resistance to ageing,chemicals and weathering. (Two layer membrane)
·
Clogging The movement by a mechanical action or hydraulic flow of soil particles into the voids
of a fabric and retention therein,thereby reducing its permeability.
·
Creep The slow change in length or thickness of a material under prolonged stress.
·
Deformation The change in size of a material under load from its original pre-loaded dimensions.
·
Drainage Medium The material used in a drain (usually crushed stone) through which water passes.
·
Elasticity The property of matter by virtue of which it tends to return to its original size and shape
after removal of the stress which caused the deformation.
·
Elongation at Break The percentage of elongation corresponding to the maximum load.
·
Fabric - Composite A textile structure produced by combining different types of geotextiles into a single unit.
·
Fabric - Knitted A textile structure produced on knitting machines.
·
Fabric - Nonwoven Nonwoven geotextiles are usually either needlepunched or heat bonded fabrics.
·
Fabric - Reinforcement Usually an open-weaved textiled mesh,called scrim,which is used to add structual strength to another textile or geomembrane.In the case of nonwoven fabrics, the scrim is usually needled into the material at the time of manufacture.In the case of geomembranes the scrim is usually enclosed between two membrane sheets which are bonded together.
·
Fabric - Woven A planar textile structure produced by interlacing two or more sets of fibres on a loom,usually at right angles.
·
Film A very thin sheet of plastic
·
Filter Cloth A geotextile whose immediate engineering function is to act primarily as a soil filter.
·
Filtration The placing against a soil of a permeable material containing pores sufficently fine to
allow water to pass out of the soil,but not to permit the passage of soil particles.The
permeable material is called a "filter" or "filter fabric" in the case of a geotextile - if it is granular,then it is usually referred to as the "filter medium"
·
Firestone Pond Liner This is a cured single-ply synthetic rubber membrane made of ethylene,propylene, diene, terpolymer. (EPDM)
·
Flow Regime This term can either describe the steady groundwater conditions at any particular locality or it can describe the micro-flow conditions adjacent to a soil/filter interface i.e. laminar,turbulent,radial,planar.
·
Geocell A three-dimensional geosynthetic structure filled with granular material to form a contained mattress for increased bearing capacity over soft subsoils.
·
Geocomposite A manufactured material using geotextiles,geogrids and/or geomembranes in laminated or composite form.
·
Geogrid This terms usually refers to a rectangular grid made of polymer,which although it is rather rigid and unlike a textile in the conventional sense,still comes under the heading geotextile in many definitions - it is probably more suitably referred to as a "geosynthetic"
·
Geomembrane An impermeable membrane used primarily in the construction of ponds,lakes etc.
·
Geosynthetics The generic classification of all synthetic materials used in geotechnical engineering applications.
·
Geotextile Any permeable textile,mesh,net or even grid,used in contact with soil or rock.
·
Greenseal The polymer EPDM,ethylene-propylene rubber,is produced through co-polymerisation of ethylene,propylene and diene monomer,producing a ploymer made up of saturated linear macromolecules with a paraffinic structure. (2 layer membrane)
·
Heat Bonded This terms describes a textile that has been subject to heat and pressure,whereby individual fibres have partially melted and bonded at their intersection points.
·
Heat Seaming The process of joining two or more thermoplastic films of sheets by heating areas in contact with each other to the temperature at which fusion occurs.
·
Hydrophillic Will absorb water (attracts water)
·
Hydrophobic Will not absorb water (repels water)
·
In-Plane Refers to the plane of a geotextile.Usually associated with hydraulic conductivity in connection with how much water can be conducted along,within a geotextile,as opposed to the ease with which a geotextile can permit water to pass across is thin dimension.
·
Isotropic Equal strength in all directions
·
Laminar Flow Fluid follows specific flow paths,obeys Darcy's Law when seeping through porous media.
·
Lapped Joint A joint made by placing one edge of a textile or a membrane partly over another surface and bonding or sowing the overlapping portions.The purpose of joining may be to waterproof a membrane lining of a lagoon,or to save money over a large textile area by saving lap fabric,or to provide continuous structual strength in the weft direction of a textile layer by sewing adjacent geotextile sheets together.
·
Membrane A continuous sheet of material.Usually,it carries the connotation of being impermeable,although this is not strictly true.
·
Modulus The stiffness of a material when subject to stress
·
Monofilament A synthetic fibre made from a single polymer
·
Needle Punched This refers to a textile that has been mechanically bonded.Fibres are laid on a moving belt and then punched through repeatedly with barbed needles.The needles entangle the fibres,causing them to form a continous textile having tensile strength.
·
Neoprene Also known as polychloroprene - a generic name for a synthetic rubber.Resistant to ozone,to aging and some oils.
·
Nitrile Rubber A family of copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile that can be valcanized into tough oil -resistant compounds.Blends with PVC are used where ozone and weathering are important requirements in addition to its inherent oil and fuel resistance.
·
Nonwoven Refers to needlepunched and heat bonded fabrics only.Knitted fabrics are technically not woven,but are usually covered by this word.
·
O Symbol representing hole diameter
·
Particle Size Distribution A term describing the range of particle sizes in a soil.A Particle Size Distribution Curve is a graph showing the percentage fractions by weight of different sizes of particles in a particular soil sample.It is undertaken by the laboratory sieving of a soil.
·
Permeability In the context of geotextiles,this usually means the ease or otherwise with which water can travel within or pass through a geotextile or granular medium.
·
Plasticiser A plasticiser is a material added to a plastic or rubber to increase its ease of working or flexibility.
·
Polyester A material in which the fibre-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid.
·
Polymer A material formed by the chemical combination of monomers with either the same or different chemical compositions.Plastics,rubbers,and textile fibres are all high-molecular-weight polymers.
·
Polymeric Liner Plastic or rubber sheeting used to line waste disposal sites,ponds,lagoons or canals.
·
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) A synthetic thermoplastic polymer prepared from vinyl chloride.PVC can be compounded into flexible and rigid forms through the use of plasticisers,stabilizers,fillers and other modifiers.
·
Pore,Slot,Aperture The holes through a pipe,a mesh or a geotextile
·
Puncture Resistance The extent to which a membrane or geotextile is able to withstand the penetration of an object without perforation.
·
Rubber A polymeric material which,at room temperature,is capable of recovering substantially in shape and size after removal of a deforming source.Refers to both synthetic and natural rubber.Also called elastomer.
·
Scrim A woven,open-mesh reinforcing fabric made from continuous-filament yarn,used to reinforce nonwoven geotextiles or geomembranes.
·
Soil Migration The transportation of soil particles within a soil,caused by the internal flow of water.
·
Spun-Bonded A fabric manufacturing process wherein continuous or staple monofilaments are spun,formed into a sheet and then subject to heated pressurised rollers which weld the filaments together at their contact points.
·
Tear Strength The force required to tear a specimen of geotextile or geomembrane.Test results are dependent on direction of tear,specimen geometry and rate of tear.
·
Tenacity A measurement of fibre strength
·
Tensile Strength This term means the maximum tensile stress per unit of original cross-sectional area applied during stretching of a specimen to break.It is described in units of force per unit area of specimen cross section.
·
Termination Bar Profile manufactured from a range of materials used for terminating a geomembrane sheet at the top against an upright wall.
·
Thermoplastic Capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease in temperature.Most polymeric membranes are supplied in thermoplastic form because the thermoplastic form allows for easiler seaming.
·
Ultimate Elongation The elongation of a stretched specimen at the time of break.Usually reported as percent of the original length.Also called elongation at break.
·
Ulta-Violet Degradation The breakdown os a geotextile's fibre or a geomembranes polymer when exposed to light.
·
Vulcanisation A chemical process through which a rubber compound's physical and chemical properties are improved.
·
Warp Filaments running in the direction of a weaving loom i.e.the direction in which the fabric moves during manufacture.
·
Weft Filaments running usually at 90° to the warp direction of a weaving loom.The weft fibres are placed between the warp fibres by means of a shuttle


 
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